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But, as Kumar and Hedges point out, Generation 4 methods have a number of advantages that will be useful for dealing with genomic data efficiently.Specifically, they scale well with large numbers of characters or taxa, and they are free of the need for specification of clock models.We started to meet ad hoc in restaurants and call each other late at night for moral support.The first thing we noticed was that neither of us had children (after her 20-year marriage and my then 26-year marriage to my college beau). Had I focused on it at the outset, I might have had an earlier clue that something was wrong, not just with my ex, but with my ability to attach.For example, as in any Bayesian analysis, choice of prior values (in this context, on node ages or speciation rate) in a dating analysis is complicated, controversial, and can have huge (YUGE? And while prior knowledge can now be modeled using a variety of age distributions and with the use of soft bounds, etc., friction persists at the basic interface of prior information (e.g., fossil ages) and prior specification.These well-known issues have been spurring new methods aimed at more holistic incorporation of fossil and extant taxa into time tree generation.
At the time of my divorce, I was a consultant for several Washington DC arms merchants, and my friend Denise was an IRS official.It seemed brutally unfair, as if I was being penalized for opening up my heart to someone and forming a connection that (at least in my opinion) had been meaningful.Because the expression is so prevalent in our popular culture anyway, it seemed like a valid way of expressing my frustration.In particular, their binning of this history into 4 sequential “generations” provides a convenient way of thinking about the evolution of this science, which I paraphrase below. Utilize only those data that pass tests of clocklike behavior.Generation 3: Utilize all the data, and allow the molecular clock(s) to vary in rate across phylogeny according to some prior model.